Almost half (17 out of 40) of the entries in the ISTE 2011 Machinima competition are student created and range from a 5-year-old working in Minecraft to university students working in Second Life to demonstrate their learning. Attendees in Philadelphia as well as those attending virtually can view the machinima at the iste Wikispaces . Machinima was created in a number of virtual worlds, including Second Life, Reaction Grid, MineCraft, World of Warcraft and WolfQuest and covered a variety of curriculum areas including history, social issues, creative writing and science.. Be sure to access the ballot at http://bit.ly/j8Amyj and vote for your favorite student created machinima.
The students in “Norma Underwood’s” class in an Arizona public school are building and scripting in a 3D environment, sculpting in Rokuro, collaborating on projects, and communicating with their peers and interested visitors. I had the opportunity to visit Norma’s virtual class space on Reaction Grid, never having to leave my home state over 2000 miles away. What a treat to see 12 and 13 year olds assembling, communicating and cooperating in a medium that many are completely unaware of.
The class is an art class, lucky for these students they have a teacher who acknowledges and has taken the time to learn an art medium for the future. The young architects and 3D artisans have used floor-plans to build 3D homes, decorated them and added items like video games and chess sets. Learning objectives focus primarily on standards in the area of art and mathematics. Additionally, Norma is incorporating 21st Century objectives like collaboration, communication and problem solving. These are not as easily tested in the traditional assessments required by the state but obvious in the products the students have created and obvious as well when you watch them engaged in their work.
Transmedia Storytelling is a strategy that uses current and emerging technologies along with traditional strategies to enable the participant to become immersed in a story to increase engagement and understanding. Henry Jenkins, Professor of Communications, Journalism, Cinematic Arts, and Education at the University of Southern California, explains that “In transmedia, elements of a story are dispersed systematically across multiple media platforms, each making their own unique contribution to the whole.” It is a strategy that is used in the world of marketing and entertainment, still lagging in the education sector.
Telling stories across multiple platforms and formats addresses multiple learning modalities, encourages participation and motivates participants. Stories are used to teach a wide variety of concepts at all levels of education. A virtual world with a sim designed to draw students into a “game” could potentially result in a high level of learning of a literary work, historical event, or scientific phenomenon. The compelling attributes of transmedia storytelling are the capacity to engage participants and the capacity to promote creativity among the participants. Engagement is crucial to meaningful learning and creativity is identified as a 21st Century skill necessary to solve problems and be competitive in a global environment. As we look into school reform and teacher preparation for 21st Century schools it may be beneficial to ensure that teachers have some knowledge and skills in the the use of Transmedia storytelling.
The virtual environment offers students alternative ways of learning concepts. Educators understand that differentiating instruction is important and that we should not limit ourselves to telling and explaining. The information in a lecture or demonstration is magnified when students are given an opportunity to actively engage in an activity that provides a way for students to practice, apply or even play with the new content. A community college professor demonstrates a virtual world activity designed to follow a lecture and provide students a chance to “build a molecule” in virtual space.
The VWBPE Conference has a number of events to support machinima endeavors for both novice users and experts. The sessions are being held at different locations on the VWBPE 20 sims built in a Steampunk motif, just for this event.
March 17, 2011
- 4:00 PM – 05:00 PM SLT -Machinima Featured Speakers -Decka Mah and Knowclue Kidd: Machinima through multiple lenses: Lights Camera! Learning! VWBPE Central – Central Auditorium – http://slurl.com/secondlife/VWBPE%20Central%202/3/19/42
- 5:00 PM – 06:00 PM SLT – Archivist Llewellyn, Machinima Best Practices: Preserving Virtual Worlds Through Video Documentation Building: EAST Room: East 1/2 Machinima
- 7:00 PM – 08:00 PM SLTMarlene Brooks, Cathy Wicks, Digital Storytelling Using Virtual World Technology: The Making of Machinima Building: NORTH – Room: North1
March 18, 2011
- 2:00 – 3:00 PM SLT – The Fantastic and The Furious: Capturing Moments Through Machinima
Machinima Featured Speaker – Sonicity Fitzroy and Lowe Runo: Central – Central Auditorium http://slurl.com/secondlife/VWBPE%20Central%202/3/19/42
- 3:00 – 4:00 PM SLT- Machinima 4 Mere Mortals: Machinima Working Group – Intro. to Machinima East – EM 1/2
- 3:00 – 4:00 PM SLT How 2 Use Machinima as Part of Your Class: East 1 – East 1/2 Teen Fair
- 8:00 – 9:00 PM SLT-VWBPE Machinima Screening: East – EM 1/2
March 19, 2011
- 7:00 – 8:00 AM SLT – Firery Broome, Machinima Demystified: The Experts Share Their Secrets
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Environments in virtual worlds can be realistic or fantastical, each has benefits for students both as visitors and as creators. National and state educational standards require that students can identify, describe and understand the differences in both land and water-related … Continue reading
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Learning communities (LC) are active in the virtual environment, consisting of like-minded individuals who have a common interest and get together regularly over long periods of time to both share and gain knowledge and skills. Many of the learning communities … Continue reading
The traditional physical classroom has not changed much in the past hundred years. It contains desks and chairs for students, a teacher desk and chair, a board on which to write or project and wall space which is often decorated with appropriate curricular materials. The most important instructional resource in the classroom is the teacher. A skilled teacher manages the space, materials, furnishings, and students to ensure that students are engaged and learning. A virtual learning space has less boundaries and limitations and a skilled teacher is again the most important resource. The teacher must manage the three-dimensional virtual space, guide students to navigate and interact with the environment and provide experiences to ensure that learning takes place.
Often virtual learning spaces are a replica of the traditional, providing a frame of reference for participants and taking advantage of the potential available in a virtual setting with ‘backchannel’ chat and follow-up assignments. Teachers and students understand the traditional role of “sage on the stage” and play the respective roles in the virtual setting, with the added benefits of a virtual setting. Students can be physically in the same room using computers (a lab setting) requiring both real world and a virtual world classroom management strategies or in remote locations which would require more intensive virtual strategies to ensure engagement of students. The teacher must :
- Design experiences which are interesting, relevant and aligned to curriculum objectives
- Plan appropriate amount of time for completing of tasks
- Provide direction and guidance so that students know expctations
- Deliver and Guide
- Give clear directions
- Encourage questions and answer according to the protocol established
- Circulate (virtually and/or physically) among students to provide individual support and ensure engagement
- Institute a “buddy” policy for peer support
- Intervene when necessary
Teachers know that differentiating instruction is most effective and that the more involved in the learning a student is, the more that student will learn. Thus knowledge/concept retention from lecture is significantly less than from group discussion and actual practice by doing. As educators we also know that when an individual “teaches” or provides instruction to another they learn it better themselves. Using gaming in a constructivist teaching environment has merit. The theory of constructivist learning comes from the philosophy that people can understand only what they have personally constructed. The nature of constructivism:
- is interdisciplinary with the emphasis on the learner rather than the teacher
- requires that the learner interacts with the environment and gains understanding
- ensures the student making meaningful connections
- requires problem solving
- requires personal involvement
- is based on the application of concepts to be learned
Constructivist teachers structure learning experiences that foster the creation of meaning, building lessons around big ideas to foster learning. Virtual worlds used in a way that students can build, collaborate, solve problems, and teach others certainly are aligned with the tenets of constructivist teaching.
According to Gartner information, the World of Work in 10 Years will require a similar set of skills:
- Work Swarms -problem solving with less structured situations
- Weak links – work with people you don’t know or barely know
- Working With the Collective – informal groups of people, outside the direct control of the organization
- Spontaneous Work – new opportunities and creating new designs and models.
- Simulation and Experimentation – active engagement with simulated environments
- Hyperconnectedness – existing within networks of networks, unable to completely control any of them.
- Virtual workplace – meetings occurring across time zones and organizations increasingly happen 24 / 7
The alignment between constructivist learning and skills for the future make teaching in a virtual world an obvious option.
Remember the clubhouse in the woods you built with your friends. It was your clubhouse. You and your friends thought of it, planned it, gathered materials, constructed it, fought about it, fought in it, plotted in it, pretended to be super-heros or knights in it, and then probably tore it down because it seemed like a good idea and it was yours to tear down. Remember the playhouse that the little girl down the street had. Her father built it for her. It was a beauty; A door with hinges and a door knob, heart-shaped shutters, flower-boxes, shingles, matching curtains and furnishings. She had a birthday party and everyone got to go into it but you couldn’t “mess it up”. Nobody really played there much, it collected spiderwebs. It sat forever – a monument to adult intervention.
As I listened to the ISTE Speaker Series on SL Tuesday night, Knowclue’s message was most profound. She said she is a stickler on students building and making their own environment in SL Teen Grid and now on Reaction Grid where she provides instruction. I sat in the audience and asked “what evidence do you have of student achievement?” My thoughts were focused on what so many educators are thinking about: test scores, numbers, Adequate Yearly Progress, achievement data, standards. Of course these are important quantifiable data points and so is the remarkable build that her students created.
The evidence is that children built a community based on a unit of study. The student Build required the use of communication, collaboration and problem solving (those 21st Century Skills). It required the use of mathematics and integration of an artistic sensibility. The students had to read/research and take notes, write, and compute. Knowclue has a clue and she also has evidence. The student product is the evidence. The students will be tested in the standards at the end of the year and those scores too will be reviewed – together they form the picture of evidence. My hunch is the students who build will demonstrate more learning gains than the students who have it built for them, look to the evidence.